A scientific approach to Old Icelandic text means considering it as self-referential and self-organising system. This implies that strings of graphemes become patterned through their own internal driving forces. In treating the Gunnlaug Saga with the reversibly synthesizing Agent-action-Objective [AaO] mechanism, emerging space-time patterns allow for setting up phase-dependent transitions for the [A] and [O] components of the mechanism. Thereby, multi-stability is made evident through... Topics: Dreams, mirroring, topology-changing transition, intention, orientation, resonance space,...
In a study of a quote from Tacitus, the purpose is to show how the reversibly synthesizing [AaO] mechanism of Perspective Text Analysis operates and can be used in the sequencing and description of an Ancient Latin paragraph. Sequencing implies the coding of strings at the edge where changes in resonating graphemes occur and become sensitive to the producer’s timing. The employed coding is producing a geometric configuration which, moreover, is free from any semantic interpretation.... Topics: Morphogenetic structure, geometric distance, consciousness, self-reference, historical time, Latin...
The assumption in this article is that consciousness can be transferred and transformed over times, over texts, and over cultures, provided that a high-quality medium can perform satisfactorily in order to reflect this consciousness. The assumption implies that consciousness is embedded in a style of writing. When sensing a text from earlier times, a reader must be able to pick up the structural relations of this text and mediate them in its own style of writing. In this study, the medium is a... Topics: consciousness, writing style, language space, transformation, structural stability, literary...
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to... Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
The present discussion is meant to serve the explanation of significant novelties, resulting from a search through the holophors of Swedish, English, German, Danish, French, and Italian text productions. Holophors have the capacity to enhance the fundamental relation between ideas and motifs through the explicitness of the functional state-termini relations. It follows that their common causal determination can be treated as the efficient definition of adaptation and consequently translational... Topics: Emergent themes, emergent motifs, transformations on information invariants, structural stability,...
This work presents a longitudinal didactic experiment based on the idea that literature, especially fiction, can serve as a basis for developing competence. Of critical importance is the teacher’s knowledge of the variation of conceptual depth in teaching materials. Based on five empirically discovered degrees of difficulty in literary texts, examples of writers and novels suitable as teaching materials for each degree are discussed. Further, a three-year authentic program in the subject of... Topics: competence, didactics, longitudinal, high school, training, Swedish, synthesis, literature, fiction
Mar 8, 2014byInger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
The present work is based on the Kantian (AaO)-axiom and conceptualised as a textbook. As scientific method in the true sense of the notion science, the Vertex version of Perspective Text Analysis PTA/Vertex represents a completely new approach to text-based studies. The inter-lingual character of Vertex has been tested and established in the context of six different languages, four belonging to the German family and two to the Roman family. The actual presentation concerns the German version.... Topics: Functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
Feb 10, 2014byInger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
The essence of the present work is based on the Kantian(AaO)-axiom. As a scientific method in its true sense, the Vertex version of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) represents an alternative approach to text-based studies. The inter-lingual character of Vertex has been tested and established in the context of six different languages, four belonging to the German family and two to the Roman family. The actual presentation concerns the Italian version. Vertex comprises a strict measurement of the... Topics: Functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is generally assumed that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly, through... Topics: duality, mentality, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), holophors, language space, perspective...
In studying poem-embedded consciousness, the present approach has been based on Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). Methodologically, the version Vertex is used and the focus is on suffering in the Age of Reason in which both the French Système and the Philosophes had trouble with fitting the horrors of catastrophic events into the optimistic worldview of that time. In particular, Voltaire’s position concerning the doctrine of optimism and the solutions, proposed by the Church and the Système,... Topics: reversible synthesizing AaO mechanism, consciousness, self-reference, self-indication, age of reason
Compared to all other countries, the self-governing organisation of the Swedish Student Union has a unique position concerning its influence on Administration, Government and Parliament. Through the Teacher Union's strike of 1966, its activities have become known in Germany. In particular, the students' ability of organising lessons over an extended period of time has contributed to their popularity among some educators in Germany. Furthermore, all committee work of some import is passed to the... Topics: student participation, student union, committee work, curriculum formulation
This report gives some information about the possibilities and problems, which have been observed during an excursion to Sweden, jointly organised by the Department of Comparative Education, University of Marburg and the Department of Education at the University of Hamburg. Two different forms can be discerned. One concerns the provision of school psychology in Gothenburg and the other relates to parts of student care within the comprehensive school system of Uppsala. Some information about the... Topics: Sweden, comprensive school, psychology, student care
Oct 1, 2013byBernhard Bierschenk, Inger Bierschenk & Helge Helmersson
The dominating property of the present report concerns an approach, which is exclusively based on discontinuities as the reliable observations. In what way the presentation is designed and the main assumptions are formulated is described within an ecological context. Furthermore, a system of computer programs constitutes the background for reflection. A perspective, oriented on the environment, is extricated through effective evolutionary processes, bifurcation, and loss of stability. With the... Topics: Perspecitve Text Analysis, AaO model, coding, strings, grapheme
Oct 1, 2013byInger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
The basic hypothesis of the presented contribution is that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce natural language expressions. The shape of the mind of a particular person can be discovered through the mechanisms forming the corresponding language space. Although covered by textual surface properties, this space is approachable with VERTEX which is a new version of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). Due to the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) axiom, it has been possible to... Topics: functional text geometry, PTA/Vertex, text processiong, AaO model, algorithmic coding
Oct 1, 2013byBernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
To an ever-increasing extent, in scientific investigations of various kinds are data collected, which consists of verbal expressions. They may have been generated through verbal presentations, personal interviews, open questions or written accounts. Therefore, it is not unusual that an investigator is confronted with data collections that appear to be âunstructuredâ and of an extent that it seems to be an insurmountable task to extract the information content with so-called informal methods,... Topics: Perspective Text Analysis, AaO model, running text, functional text geometry
The purpose of constructing measures of the concepts (1) quality of life and (2) dignity was to assess the possibility of self-actualisation and the constraints on life within each of three simulated social organisations. The potential predictors of the first experiment were derived by a factor analytic study of 51 statements based on N = 271 subjects. The extracted scales are (1) adaptability-security, (2) freedom of action, and (3) physical existence. The predictors of the second study were... Topics: behavioural science, basic models, assessment, dignity, life quality
When a society plans the upbringing and education of its members, irrespective of age and level, one absolute requirement must be that it develops their ability of self-determination. A psycho-ecological approach to a study of the individual's self-cognition (perception and evaluation) and self-determination (i.e. development of plans of action) focuses on the mutual relations existing between the individual and his environment, and the dynamics of these relations. More concretely, the aim is... Topics: simulation, behaviour strategies, transition matrix, event design
This report presents a system for simulation of interactive behaviour strategies. The system has been constructed on the basis of a psycho-ecological model. The basic unit is an event. Each event has been concretised by means of closed circuit television and video recording techniques and anchored in three basic paradigms of behavioural science, namely the paradigms of association, structure and process. The report shows that the structure of properties that is typical for the paradigms has an... Topics: simulation, strategies, teacher training, behaviour change, closed circuit television
This article attempts to prove that an adequate cognition oriented approach to the processing of symbolic information abstracted from verbal expressions must consider a running text instead of scattered sentences. It is argued that the dominant cognition models do not give due consideration to the fact that a valid abstraction of in-formation structures has to be based on an explicit encoding of intentionality and valuation. Following a critical discussion of the foundations of the existing... Topics: running text processing, semantics, Osgood scaling, verb, adjectives, discriminant functions
An experimental study was carried out at the Malmö School of Education in 1969 and 1970 for the purpose of studying the effects on the self-assessment of student teachers of, firstly, externally mediated self-confrontation processes (via closed-circuit television and video-recording), and secondly, dyadic confrontation processes (in the form of traditional tutoring). Detailed reports on the background, design and result of the experiment have been presented in Swedish. The present report gives... Topics: self-confrontation, closed circuit televison, teacher training, panel studies, structure analysis
Sep 10, 2013byInger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
Résumé L’essence de ce rapport est basée sur l’axiome (AaO) proposé par Kant. La version Vertex de la méthode PTA (Analyse de la Perspective du Texte) représente une approche alternative quand il s’agit d’études basées sur des textes. Le système Vertex comprend un mesurage objectif des angles de texte, qui sont utilisés pour une description non-linéaire du flux textuel, qui forme un espace dynamique. Le noyau de Vertex est introduit au moyen d’instructions à une procédure... Topics: functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
The aim of this article is to make a distinction between qualification and competence. Although academic institutions, organisations, companies, and schools are focussing upon competence development as the natural answer to new technical and societal demands, no one has succeeded in providing a satisfactory operational definition of âcompetenceâ. A dictionary search has shown that different areas of science and humanities conceive of competence from an analytical point of view, which, in... Topics: competence, testing, educational materials, educational goals, surface concepts, structural...
The focus of this article is on the question whether pure literature can contribute to education. As a portion of modern literature study in Swedish upper secondary level, novels about the future were examined, especially some, which take a critical position toward modern civilisation. In an experiment using Perspective Text Analysis, a master text has shown the theoretically rooted dimensionality of "futurism" as a socially valid concept. 18 year-olds got the task to write about a... Topics: humanities, futurism, educational materials, civilization novel, surface concepts, structural...
This article is a discussion of the possibility of changing the view of knowledge producing activities toward a competence directed education. After presentation of the traditional behaviouristic model and its consequences when applied on teaching, a new concept of competence is suggested, which differs from the concept of qualification. An important part of the article deals with the evaluation as an idea and a method for quality control. It is shown that evaluation of teacher effectiveness is... Topics: competence, evaluation research, goal-directedness
This is the second article on the competence theme, which aims at demonstrating the consequences of a new educational paradigm, namely materials-directedness. By this is meant the conceptual control of the built-in disparity of educational materials. By means of a new method for structural analysis (in a biological sense), it is shown how conceptual relations and dimensions of a literary text are laid bare. The demonstration text, which is a description of the idea of behaviourism, is analysed... Topics: structure, educational materials, behaviourism, concepts
This article is a discussion of the possibility of changing the view of knowledge producing activities toward a competence directed education. After presentation of the traditional behaviouristic model and its consequences when applied on teaching, a new concept of competence is suggested, which differs from the concept of qualification. An important part of the article deals with the evaluation as an idea and a method for quality control. It is shown that evaluation of teacher effectiveness is... Topics: competence, quality, materials directedness, evaluation research
In behavioural science research verbal expressions are analysed with various methods and techniques. However, in order to describe the relations within an entire sentence quantitatively with the aid of multivariate statistical procedures, ANACONDA has been developed. This acronym implies the notion of a method for the Analysis of Concepts by means of Data Processing. Topics: psychometrics, content analysis, semantic differentials
The dictionary base is representing Swedish adjectives and verbs which were assessed of a sample of 40 randomly selected individuals, drawn from a population of 132 researchers, working in the fields of educational and psychological research. Further, the presented source materials are based on a sample of 600 pages of running text drawn from the 4000 pages of the collected interviews. This base provides a new way of building up concepts and conceptual relations. Finally, all units were scaled... Topics: Multidimensional scaling, Osgood, psychometrics, content analysis
With growing amounts of research data it becomes increasingly difficult to handle and maintain them and also get an overview over their structure. When a research project has been going for some years, various types of materials have been collected and stored in various ways and at different places. The purpose of this document is to describe how the body of records of a research project at a Swedish research department during the years 1972-1977 has been organized for the archives. The data... Topics: data filing, information storage, information retrieval, documentation
Aug 16, 2013byBernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
A simulation model is presented, which has been constructed in such a way that the trainee gets control over the context of her actions. Three types of simulated action-event-sequences are presented in an inductive way The aim is to demonstrate the texture of the simulation process. It is shown that visualised as well as verbalised information has to be processed in a cooperative manner in order to abstract the ecological invariants in the flow of the simulation process. Three analyses are... Topics: behaviour simulation, closed circuit televison, video-recording, process analysis
This report is part of a project on content analysis and deals with dictionary construction as basis for statistical analyses of interviews. The generation of lexical data bases consisting of nouns, adjectives and verbs is described and results from experimentation on authentic materials are accounted for. Dictionaries of scaled base forms of adjectives and verbs are compared with truncated items. The purpose is to obtain a perfect match, so that the results can be assigned a scale value for... Topics: content analysis, dictionary, data processing, information retrieval
This document is a working paper aimed at discussing the prerequisites for an experiment in larger scale on information in scientific titles. It contains hypotheses regarding researchersâ structuring of their titles and proposes a model for recognition of structured information based on the Problem-Method-Goal paradigm, whose cue pointers are prepositions. On this basis, criteria for selecting titles for the experiment are proposed together with a presentation of the primary linguistic... Topics: computational linguistics, algorithmic coding, pattern generation, intermediate language, empirical...
This technical report from the I&D project summarizes studies made on a 40 years production by a sample of educational researchers in Sweden. The problem dealt with concerns quantitative distributions of the languages in which the works are written and the results of a program for automatic language separation. The separating capacity of various languages is compared with respect to bibliographic data of a scientific work. Word frequencies are discussed as to content and structure and some... Topics: computational linguistics, computerbased lexicology, scientific information, language separation,...
Truncated registers (completed in 1979) have been automatically generated from titles of the scientific documents (ca 1000) that were produced by 40 randomly selected researchers at educational institutions in Sweden during the period 1937-1977. The registers have been compiled from Swedish text materials. A main characteristic of this empirically generated thesaurus is the Problem-Method-Goal model assumed to be basic for an information searcher (user) as well as for the information producer.... Topics: computational linguistics, algorithmic coding, pattern generation, intermediate language, empirical...
This article presents and discusses a model for analyzing abstract invariant relationships between concepts and conceptualizations, linguistically expressed in generalized descriptions (scientific titles) of information processing. The model assumes conceptual information to be directly picked up by means of prepositions distinguishing intention from orientation. The precise organizing functions of prepositions have led to the construction of an algorithm which makes possible a generalized... Topics: intermediate language, AaO paradigm, structure, concept, recognition, prepositions, algorithmic
This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,... Topics: duality, mentality, holophor, language space, perspective transformation, fiction, The Dwarf, Pär...
A main line of thought in modernistic prose concerns the efforts of transforming scientific concepts into literary forms. This paper presents a study, which formulates the hypothesis that, despite these efforts, a clear distinction should be found between the theory and mind of an author and his text producing practice. A text sample from a well-known American Nobel Prize holder has been studied by means of Perspective Text Analysis, by which the space of a text can be established and measured.... Topics: AaO system, novel, writer, mental, functionalism, behaviourism, Hemingway
No one has ever been able to look into the language space nor has anyone been able to measure the phenomenon of consciousness without the interference of an observer. This article is changing this situation completely. From now on it is possible to produce measures of consciousness without the presence of classical observation devices. In particular, the observation problem can be bypassed since the “observer” is part of the “observed”. This means that the phenomenon is describing... Topics: AaO system, string, mirroring, geometry, shapes
This paper aims at pointing out the differing interpretations of metaphoric sentences’ comprehension as developed in the recent psycholinguistic literature. The inadequacies of the psycholinguistic theories of language processing which rests on the assumption according to which language is the expression of a relatively autonomous cognitive activity are highlighted in the interpretation of metaphors as anomalous sentences. The rejection of the thesis of the anomalous character of metaphors... Topics: cognition, sentence, structure, comprehension, perception
This article is a presentation of a new method for analysing texts: Perspective Text Analysis. The text is used to illustrate this method and also the results of it I have produced myself. The advantages of the Perspective Text Analysis are discussed in comparison with more traditional methods for content analysis. One of these advantages is the ability of the presented method to specify the objects connected to each agent through an action in text. Through cluster analysis this method can show... Topics: AaO system, agent perspective, religion, discourse
This research aims at showing that children shift their interpretation of the same metaphor according to the social role respectively of the speaker and the addressee of the sentence, to the degree of lexicalisation of the metaphor, and to their age. We chose the simplest type of metaphorical sentence, i. e., the ‘nominal’ one in the form 'X is a B', where X was a proper name and be an animal term. The twelve animal terms used produced six lexicalised and six new metaphors. Every metaphor... Topics: cognition, metaphor, story, perception, statistics
Since the 1960's there has been increasing understanding and cooperation between the religious and the political spheres in Sweden, notably between the Church of Sweden and the Social-democratic Party. Both have been occupied with issues outside their traditional national and confessional boundaries. The question is whether and to what extent this has resulted in a “civil religion of the Swedish society” which unites the Church and secular politics in their striving for justice and peace in... Topics: cognition, AaO system, religion, politics, ideology, strategy
The purpose of the discussion in this introductory chapter is to give an evolutionary background to a method developed for the analysis of language seen as expression of intention and morality. The method is named “Perspective Text Analysis. This name indicates that beyond the physical dimension of a text there is a metaphysical one, which can be discovered by a formal mechanism. The fundamental component of this mechanism is the Agent, which controls the perspective of the text. It has... Topics: cognition, AaO system, intention, morality, agent, control, mentality
When in 1932 Bartlett first used the concept of âschemaâ borrowing it from Head, he intended to suggest a unitary structure whose elements interacted in a complex way. This structure, which aimed to insure the continuity of the cognising organism, was at the same time the expression of the functional principle responsible for the mutual interdependence between an organism, the human being, and its environment. Current research on cognitive processes very often refers to the very concept of... Topics: cognition, schema, formalism, structure, organism, attunement
This article presents a study in cognitive economics. It originates from a survey of mechanics carried out by a Swedish multinational machine industry. The verbal response of seven US and seven Swedish mechanics to three open questions concerning information needs were analysed with Perspective Text Analysis. Only configurations building on significant groupings, which do not fall below the lower limit of t.90 of the t-distribution, are retained in the analysis. The structures embedded in... Topics: cognitve, economics, structure, dimensionality, workers, multinational, industry
This seminar paper contains a short principled discussion of the use of prepositions in the interaction of language with information science models. The point of departure is the problems of ambiguity identified in various computer-based approaches to the specification of information. The paper ends up in a proposal for ecological thinking in text analyses where the concept of action range should have the cue function. Examples are taken from the context of the Visual Cliff experiments. The... Topics: preposition, cognition, element, information, organization, language, ecology
This contribution is about an entirely new approach to the study of knowledge. As an introductory remark, the classical research operations in the field of cognition are reviewed. Against this background, an application of David Hestenes theory of rotational dynamics is demonstrated with particular reference to text processing. Based on the mechanism of joints and links of the AaO machine, angular displacements and the control of textual movement patterns are topologically presented. In the... Topics: AaO system, angular displacement, textual movement, topology
This article presents the prerequisites and implications of a new method called Perspective Text Analysis. The discussion concerns some basic differences in social science and linguistic approaches to language modelling and its consequences. The concepts of organisation and structure are contrasted and it is shown and explained the reason why these concepts are mixed up in models of language and texts. In the model presented, text is conceptualised as an exact depiction of the continuous and... Topics: organisation, structure, cutting edge, information flow
The focus of the presentation is on the individual’s comprehension of “citizenship”. Study and analysis of citizenship concerns a person’s co-operative interaction with various physical and social surroundings as well as the cognitive integration of these surroundings. A person can achieve this integration through development of his abilities of judgement. Thus the aim is to make apparent the kinds of judgement that have been manifested on the basis of three different sequences of... Topics: citizenship, projection, future, cognitive integration
The present paper is intended to give an account of the reactions of 19 years old students of a Swedish Gymnasium to some 20th century ideas and their social implementation. The students were exposed to three potential developments of future societies and thereafter an extended course on modern literature took place. All participating students, in all 90 subjects, were re-tested on the same three videotape societies. The purpose with his test-retest design was to study the possible impact of... Topics: literature, model society, educational profile, scientific paradigms